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No Surprises Act

Learn about new rights and protections to end surprise bills, better understand costs before getting health care, and minimize payment disagreements.


Your Rights and Protections Against Surprise Medical Bills


When you get emergency care or are treated by an out-of-network provider at an in-network hospital or ambulatory surgical center, you are protected from balance billing. In these cases, you shouldn’t be charged more than your plan’s copayments, coinsurance and/or deductible.


What is “balance billing” (sometimes called “surprise billing”)?

When you see a doctor or other health care provider, you may owe certain out-of-pocket costs, like a copayment, coinsurance, or deductible. You may have additional costs or have to pay the entire bill if you see a provider or visit a health care facility that isn’t in your health plan’s network.

“Out-of-network” means providers and facilities that haven’t signed a contract with your health plan to provide services. Out-of-network providers may be allowed to bill you for the difference between what your plan pays and the full amount charged for a service. This is calledbalance billing.” This amount is likely more than in-network costs for the same service and might not count toward your plan’s deductible or annual out-of-pocket limit.

“Surprise billing” is an unexpected balance bill. This can happen when you can’t control who is involved in your care—like when you have an emergency or when you schedule a visit at an in-network facility but are unexpectedly treated by an out-of-network provider. Surprise medical bills could cost thousands of dollars depending on the procedure or service.


You’re protected from balance billing for:

Emergency services If you have an emergency medical condition and get emergency services from an out-of-network provider or facility, the most they can bill you is your plan’s in-network cost-sharing amount (such as copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles). You can’t be balance billed for these emergency services. This includes services you may get after you’re in stable condition, unless you give written consent and give up your protections not to be balanced billed for these post-stabilization services.

Certain services at an in-network hospital or ambulatory surgical center When you get services from an in-network hospital or ambulatory surgical center, certain providers there may be out-of-network. In these cases, the most those providers can bill you is your plan’s in-network cost-sharing amount. This applies to emergency medicine, anesthesia, pathology, radiology, laboratory, neonatology, assistant surgeon, hospitalist, or intensivist services. These providers can’t balance bill you and may not ask you to give up your protections not to be balance billed.

If you get other types of services at these in-network facilities, out-of-network providers can’t balance bill you, unless you give written consent and give up your protections.


You’re never required to give up your protections from balance billing. You also aren’t required to get out-of-network care. You can choose a provider or facility in your plan’s network.


State Specific Rules

In the state of Florida, there are comprehensive balance billing protections in addition to those provided by the federal No Surprises Act. Florida law states that insurance companies are not allowed to bill you for amounts beyond your plan’s in-network cost-sharing amount. That protection applies to HMO and PPO insurance plans for emergency services by out-of-network providers and facilities, as well as non-emergency services provided by out-of-network providers at in-network facilities. For PPOs, the state payment standard applies to emergency services and non-emergency services provided by out-of-network providers at in-network facilities. For HMOs, the state payment standard only applies to emergency services but the state also has a claim dispute resolution program in place. Under Florida law, these protections do not apply to ground ambulance services for PPO insurance plans, patients enrolled in PPO insurance plans who consent to non-emergency out-of-network services, and patients with self-funded insurance plans. The laws put in place by the state of Florida work together with the requirements of the No Surprises Act to ensure that you are protected from surprise medical bills. 


Florida Department of Financial Services, Division of Consumer Services

In addition to the protections under federal law, Mississippi law prohibits balance billing for emergency care from facilities or providers that are out-of-network for those patients with state-regulated health plans.

Mississippi law states that if a healthcare provider accepts a patient’s insurance assignment from a state-regulated health plan, then the plan will pay the provider directly for the patient’s treatment. That payment is considered payment in full to the healthcare provider – this means the provider cannot bill the patient later for any amount more than the payment received from the plan, other than normal deductibles or co-pays.


Mississippi Insurance Department 

Missouri protects patients from surprise medical bills for health care services provided at an in-network facility from an out-of-network provider from the time the patient presents with an emergency medical condition until the patient is discharged. Additionally, Missouri law requires that patients pay only their in-network cost-sharing amounts. These protections apply to any patient covered by a state-regulated insurance plan but does not apply to a liability insurance policy, workers’ compensation insurance policy, or medical payments insurance issued as a supplement to a liability policy.


Missouri Department of Insurance
File a complaint at 
Visit for more information about your rights under Missouri laws

Tennessee law prohibits healthcare facilities from collecting out-of-network charges from a patient, or the patient’s insurance in excess of the in-network cost-sharing amount unless the healthcare facility provided written notice to the patient prior to the provision of medical services and documented whether the patient signed the written notice. This law applies to any state-regulated insurance plan.


Tennessee Department of Commerce and Insurance 
615-741-2218 or 1-800-342-4029

When balance billing isn’t allowed, you also have these protections:


  • You’re only responsible for paying your share of the cost (like the copayments, coinsurance, and deductible that you would pay if the provider or facility was in-network). Your health plan will pay any additional costs to out-of-network providers and facilities directly.
  • Generally, your health plan must:
  • Cover emergency services without requiring you to get approval for services in advance (also known as “prior authorization”).
  • Cover emergency services by out-of-network providers.
  • Base what you owe the provider or facility (cost-sharing) on what it would pay an in-network provider or facility and show that amount in your explanation of benefits.
  • Count any amount you pay for emergency services or out-of-network services toward your in-network deductible and out-of-pocket limit.
If you think you’ve been wrongly billed, contact 1-800-985-3059. Visit for more information about your rights under federal law.

You have the right to receive a “Good Faith Estimate” explaining how much your medical care will cost


Under the law, health care providers need to give patients who don’t have insurance or who are not using insurance an estimate of the bill for medical items and services.

  • You have the right to receive a Good Faith Estimate for the total expected cost of any non-emergency items or services. This includes related costs like medical tests, prescription drugs, equipment, and hospital fees.
  • Make sure your health care provider gives you a Good Faith Estimate writing at least 1 business day before your medical service or item. You can also ask your health care provider, and any other provider you choose, for a Good Faith Estimate before you schedule an item or service.
  • If you receive a bill that is at least $400 more than your Good FaithEstimate, you can dispute the bill.
  • Make sure to save a copy or picture of your Good Faith Estimate.
For questions or more information about your right to a Good Faith Estimate, visit or call 1-800-985-3059.

For Your Good Faith Estimate, Contact:

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Phone: 800.423.0504 option 5